Effects of Saline and Sodic Stress on Yield and Fatty Acid Profile in Sunflower Seeds
AbstractAmong the objectives concerned in this research, much importance has been attached to the assessment of the influence of soil type, irrigation water quality and leaching requirement on the production and composition in fatty acids of sunflower oil. The trial was run in 2001 on a sunflower crop (cv. HS 90) grown in cylindrical pots at the Campus of Bari University (Italy). 36 treatments obtained from the factorial combination of two clay soils with nine types of brackish water and two leaching fractions (10 and 20%) were compared. The nine types of irrigation water were obtained by dissolving the proper amounts of NaCl and CaCl2 in de-ionized water, according to the factorial combination of three salt concentration levels (0.01, 0.032 and 0.064 M) with three sodium levels (SAR = 5, 15 and 45). At ripening the main yield traits, oil yield and acid composition of seeds were analysed. At the highest salinity level about 70% yield reduction, in terms of seeds per plant was observed. The oil yield and the final acid composition of seeds were significantly affected by soil type, leaching requirement, salinity and the SAR levels of irrigation water. A progressive decline in oil yield was recorded as the salt concentration and sodium level of irrigation solutions increased. As to the fatty acid composition, a gradual increase in oleic and linolenic acid content and a corresponding decrease in the other fatty acids were found as the salinity and sodium levels of irrigation water increased. The oleic/linoleic acid ratio too increased as the salinity increased. The salt and sodium-induced stresses of irrigation water reduced the seed and oil yields while still favouring a progressive increase in the oleic acid content and a slight decrease of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids, thus improving oil quality. The results point out both the influence of the soil and the positive effect of sodium and salt stress and of the leaching fraction on the food quality of sunflower oil.
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Copyright (c) 2007 Giovanna Cucci, Taddeo Rotunno, Antonio De Caro, Giovanni Lacolla, Roberto Di Caterina, Emanuele Tarantino
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