Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 3.1 ‘Ploughing in good soil moisture conditions’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

  • Rosa Francaviglia | rosa.francaviglia@crea.gov.it CREA-RPS, Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Antonio Melchiorre Carroni CREA-AAM, Research Unit for Agro-pastoral Systems in Mediterranean Environment, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Paola Ruda CREA-AAM, Research Unit for Agro-pastoral Systems in Mediterranean Environment, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Mauro Salis CREA-AAM, Research Unit for Agro-pastoral Systems in Mediterranean Environment, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Paolo Bazzoffi CREA-ABP, Research Centre for Agro-biology and Pedology, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Silvia Carnevale CREA-ABP, Research Centre for Agro-biology and Pedology, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Andrea Rocchini CREA-ABP, Research Centre for Agro-biology and Pedology, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Antonio Troccoli CREA-CER, Cereal Research Centre, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Mario Russo CREA-CER, Cereal Research Centre, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Marisanna Speroni CREA-FLC, Research Centre for Fodder Crop and Dairy Productions, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Lamberto Borrelli CREA-FLC, Research Centre for Fodder Crop and Dairy Productions, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Giovanni Cabassi CREA-FLC, Research Centre for Fodder Crop and Dairy Productions, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Ulderico Neri CREA-RPS, Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Rosario Napoli CREA-RPS, Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Margherita Falcucci CREA-RPS, Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Bruno Pennelli CREA-RPS, Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Giampiero Simonetti CREA-RPS, Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Melania Migliore CREA-RPS, Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Chiara Piccini CREA-RPS, Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Domenico Ventrella CREA-SCA, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Alessandro Vittorio Vonella CREA-SCA, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Luisa Giglio CREA-SCA, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Francesco Fornaro CREA-SCA, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Mirko Castellini CREA-SCA, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Francesca Modugno CREA-SCA, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Francesco Montemurro CREA-SSC, Research Unit for the Study of Cropping Systems, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Angelo Fiore CREA-SSC, Research Unit for the Study of Cropping Systems, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Mariangela Diacono CREA-SSC, Research Unit for the Study of Cropping Systems, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Lorenzo Furlan Veneto Agricoltura, Regional Agency for agriculture, forestry and agri-food sector, Italy.
  • Francesca Chiarini Veneto Agricoltura, Regional Agency for agriculture, forestry and agri-food sector, Italy.
  • Michele Colauzzi Veneto Agricoltura, Regional Agency for agriculture, forestry and agri-food sector, Italy.
  • Antonio Barbieri Veneto Agricoltura, Regional Agency for agriculture, forestry and agri-food sector, Italy.
  • Francesco Fagotto Veneto Agricoltura, Regional Agency for agriculture, forestry and agri-food sector, Italy.
  • Marco Fedrizzi CREA-ING, Research Unit for Agricultural Engineering, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Roberto Fanigliulo CREA-ING, Research Unit for Agricultural Engineering, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Mauro Pagano CREA-ING, Research Unit for Agricultural Engineering, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Giulio Sperandio CREA-ING, Research Unit for Agricultural Engineering, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Mirko Guerrieri CREA-ING, Research Unit for Agricultural Engineering, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
  • Daniele Puri CREA-ING, Research Unit for Agricultural Engineering, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.

Abstract

Within the MO.NA.CO. Project the environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 3.1 ‘Ploughing in good soil moisture conditions’ was evaluated, as well as the economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers which conform or do not conform to cross-compliance. The monitoring has been carried out at nine experimental farms with different pedoclimatic characteristics, where some indicators of soil structure degradation have been evaluated, such as bulk density, packing density and surface roughness of the seedbed, and the crop productive and qualitative parameters. In each monitoring farm two experimental plots have been set up: factual with soil tillage at proper water content (tilth), counterfactual with soil tillage at inadequate water content (no tilth). The monitoring did not exhibit univocal results for the different parameters, thus the effectiveness of the Standard 3.1 is ‘contrasting’ (class of merit B), and there was an evident practical problem to till the soil at optimum water content, even in controlled experimental condition. Bulk density was significantly lower in the factual treatment although in soils with very different textures (sandy-loam and clayey). Packing density (PD) showed a high susceptibility to compaction in soils with low PD and medium texture. The tortuosity index, indicating the roughness of the seedbed, was lower and generally significantly different in the factual treatment. Results showed that the ploughing done in excessive soil moisture conditions is more expensive due to the increased force of traction of the tractor, which causes an increase in slip of the tractor wheels, with a speed reduction and increase in the working times and fuel consumption. Moreover, the crop yield is also reduced considerably according to the cultivated species.

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Published
2015-11-27
Keywords:
Cross-compliance, rural development, standard 3.1, ploughing in good soil moisture conditions, competitiveness.
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Article - Italian: 262
Article - English: 311
Technical Report: 301
APPENDIX to Tech Report: 2266
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How to Cite
Francaviglia, R., Carroni, A., Ruda, P., Salis, M., Bazzoffi, P., Carnevale, S., Rocchini, A., Troccoli, A., Russo, M., Speroni, M., Borrelli, L., Cabassi, G., Neri, U., Napoli, R., Falcucci, M., Pennelli, B., Simonetti, G., Migliore, M., Piccini, C., Ventrella, D., Vonella, A., Giglio, L., Fornaro, F., Castellini, M., Modugno, F., Montemurro, F., Fiore, A., Diacono, M., Furlan, L., Chiarini, F., Colauzzi, M., Barbieri, A., Fagotto, F., Fedrizzi, M., Fanigliulo, R., Pagano, M., Sperandio, G., Guerrieri, M., & Puri, D. (2015). Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 3.1 ‘Ploughing in good soil moisture conditions’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers. Italian Journal of Agronomy, 10(1s). https://doi.org/10.4081/ija.2015.695