Plant extracts - importance in sustainable agriculture

Submitted: 24 February 2021
Accepted: 2 May 2021
Published: 17 June 2021
Abstract Views: 16147
HTML: 4074
PDF: 3786
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Plants due to the high content of various bioactive compounds are the main raw material for production of valuable, and useful bio-products (e.g., food, cosmetics, medicines, biostimulants, biopesticides, and feed). Different plant parts, for instance: seeds, fruits, flowers, stems, leaves, and roots can be used for their manufacture. Nowadays, there is a clear need to develop new, efficient, and environmentally safe methods of stimulation of plant, growth and crop protection. Plant-based extracts are new, natural, and multi-compounds products that could be used for these purposes. They possess antifungal, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, medicinal, aromatic, and anti-inflammatory properties. This group of natural products has the potential to become a new generation of bio-products suitable for use in sustainable agriculture. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the literature describing the impact of plant-derived extracts/biostimulants (PDBs) on crops grown in controlled, and real conditions as well as under various abiotic and biotic stresses; the extraction methods used to obtain PDBs, and the specific constituents responsible for their biostimulating activity. The application of these bio-products could be beneficial for sustainable production, due to several advantages, such as low toxicity to humans and the environment, enhanced resistance of cultivated plants to biotic and abiotic stress, increased yields and quality of crops, as well as the reduction in the use of mineral fertilisers and pesticides. However, deeper cooperation between industrial and academic research is required to accelerate the development of new environmentally safe solutions for future agriculture.

- Higher plants constitute a rich source of various bioactive compounds for the production of useful natural products. 
- The importance of the proper choice of extraction method and solvent to process and preserve the desired substances.
- Plant extracts as biostimulants and plant protection products for use in modern and sustainable agriculture. 
- The positive effects of plant-based extracts on plants cultivated under normal and unfavourable conditions.
- Plant extracts as a new generation of eco-friendly products for the increment of the production of high-quality food.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Abbas SM, Akladious SA, 2013. Application of carrot root extract induced salinity tolerance in cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) seedlings. Pakistan J. Bot. 45:795-806.
Abbas SMTM, Zaglool MA, El-Ghadban EAE, Abd El-Kareem SEH, Waly AA, 2016. Effect of foliar application with aloe leaf extract (ALE) on vegetative growth, oil percentage and anatomical leaf structure of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plant under sand soil conditions. Hortsci. J. Suez Canal Univ. 5:9-14. DOI:
Abbas MM, Hussain WS, 2020. Biostimulants of pepper and eggplant by using plants aqueous extract. Plant Cell Biotechnol. Mol. Biol. 21:72-82.
Abd-El-Khair H, Haggag WM, 2007. Application of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts against potato late and early blights. Res. J. Agricult. Biol. Sci. 3:166-75.
Abd El-Mageed TA, Semida WM, Rady MM, 2017. Moringa leaf extract as biostimulant improves water use efficiency, physio-biochemical attributes of squash plants under deficit irrigation. Agric. Water Manag. 193:46-54. DOI:
Abou Chehade L, Al Chami Z, De Pascali SA, Cavoski I, Fanizzi FP, 2018. Biostimulants from food processing byâ€products: agronomic, quality and metabolic impacts on organic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). J. Sci. Food Agric. 98:1426-36. DOI:
Adenekan MO, Adejumo AOD, Akande OK, 2020. Evaluation of pawpaw plant extracts against Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on maize seeds. J. Multi-Discipl. Eng. Sci. Stud. 6:3186-92.
Alao FO, Adebayo TA, 2015. Comparative efficacy of Tephrosia vogelii and Moringa oleifera against insect pests of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thumb). Int. Lett. Nat. Sci. 35:71-8. DOI:
Ali M, Cheng ZH, Hayat S, Ahmad H, Ghani MI, Liu T, 2019. Foliar spraying of aqueous garlic bulb extract stimulates growth and antioxidant enzyme activity in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). J. Integr. Agr. 18:1001-13. DOI:
Ali Q, Perveen R, El-Esawi MA, Ali S, Hussain SM, Amber M, Iqbal N, Rizwan M, Alyemeni MN. El-Serehy HA, Al-Minsed F, Ahmad P, 2020. Low doses of Cuscuta reflexa extract act as natural biostimulants to improve the germination vigor, growth, and grain yield of wheat grown under water stress: photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative defence mechanisms, and nutrient acquisition. Biomolecules 10:1212. DOI:
Alzahrani Y, Rady MM, 2019. Compared to antioxidants and polyamines, the role of maize grain-derived organic biostimulants in improving cadmium tolerance in wheat plants. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 182:1-13. DOI:
Amin MA, 2018. Comparative studies on growth, metabolism and yield of sesame plant by using seaweed, plant extracts and some growth regulators. Al-Azhar Bull. Sci. 29:19-28. DOI:
Amri I, Hamrouni L, Hanana M, Jamoussi B, 2013. Reviews on phytotoxic effects of essential oils and their individual components: news approach for weeds management. Int. J. Appl. Biol. Pharm. Technol. 4:96-114.
Andreotti C, 2020. Management of abiotic stress in horticultural crops: Spotlight on biostimulants. Agronomy 10:1-3. DOI:
Apone F, Tito A, Carola A, Arciello S, Tortora A, Filippini L, Monoli I, Cucchiara M, Gibertoni S, Chrispeels MJ, Colucci G, 2010. A mixture of peptides and sugars derived from plant cell walls increases plant defence responses to stress and attenuates ageing-associated molecular changes in cultured skin cells. J. Biotechnol. 145:367-76. DOI:
Atak M, Mavi K, Uremis I, 2016. Bio-herbicidal effects of oregano and rosemary essential oils on germination and seedling growth of bread wheat cultivars and weeds. Rom. Biotechnol. Lett. 21:11149-59.
Azad M, Sarker S, 2017. Efficacy of some botanical extracts on plant growth, yield and pest management in eggplant field. J. Environ. Sci. Nat. Resour. 10:137-40. DOI:
Azirak S, Karaman S, 2008. Allelopathic effect of some essential oils and components on germination of weed species. Acta Agric. Scand. Sect. B Soil Plant Sci. 58:88-92. DOI:
Babilie R, Jbour M, Trabi BA, 2015. Effect of foliar spraying with licorice root and seaweed extractson growth and seed production of onion (Allium cepa L.). Int. J. ChemTech Res. 8:557-63.
Bajpai VK, Baek KH, Kim ES, Han JE, Kwak M, Oh K, Kim JC, Kim S, Choi GJ, 2012. In vivo antifungal activities of the methanol extracts of invasive plant species against plant pathogenic fungi. Plant Pathol. J. 28:317-21. DOI:
Bajpai VK, Kang S, Xu H, Lee SG, Baek KH, Kang SC, 2011. Potential roles of essential oils on controlling plant pathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas species: a review. Plant Pathol. J. 27:207-24. DOI:
Barrajón-Catalán E, Herranz-López M, Joven J, Segura-Carretero A, Alonso-Villaverde C, Menéndez JA, Micol V, 2014. Molecular promiscuity of plant polyphenols in the management of age-related diseases: far beyond their antioxidant properties. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 824:141-59. DOI:
Basra SMA, Lovatt C, 2016. Exogenous applications of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and cytokinins improve plant growth, yield and fruit quality of cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). HortTechnol. 26:327-37. DOI:
Batool A, Wahid A, Farooq M, 2016. Evaluation of aqueous extracts of moringa leaf and flower applied through medium supplementation for reducing heat stress induced oxidative damage in maize. Intl. J. Agric. Biol. 18:757-64. DOI:
Beni C, Casorri L, Masciarelli E, Ficociello B, Masetti O, Neri U, Aromolo R, Rinaldi S, Papetti P, Cichelli A, 2020, Characterization of thyme and tansy extracts used as basic substances in zucchini crop protection. J. Agricult. Stud. 8:95-110. DOI:
Ben-Jabeur M, Vicente R, Lopez-Cristoffanini C, Alesami N, Djebali N, Gracia-Romero A, Serret MD, Lopez-Carbonell M, Araus JL, Hamada, W, 2019. A novel aspect of essential oils: coating seeds with thyme essential oil induces drought resistance in wheat. Plants-Basel 8:371. DOI:
Benvenuti S, Cioni PL, Flamini G, Pardossi A, 2017. Weeds for weed control: asteraceae essential oils as natural herbicides. Weed Res. 57:342-53. DOI:
Berk P, Hocevar M, Stajnko D, Belsak A, 2016. Development of alternative plant protection product application techniques in orchards, based on measurement sensing systems: a review. Comput. Electron. Agric. 124:273-88. DOI:
Bhatnagar-Mathur P, Vadez V, Sharma KK, 2008. Transgenic approaches for abiotic stress tolerance in plants: Retrospect and prospects. Plant Cell Rep. 27:411-24. DOI:
Brown P, Saa S, 2015. Biostimulants in agriculture. Front. Plant Sci. 6:1-3. DOI:
Bulgari R, Cocetta G, Trivellini A, Vernieri P, Ferrante A, 2015. Biostimulants and crop responses: A review. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 31:1-17. DOI:
Bulgari R, Morgutti S, Cocetta G, Negrini N, Farris S, Calcante A, Spinardi A, Ferrari E, Mignani I, Oberti R, Ferrante A, 2017. Evaluation of borage extracts as potential biostimulant using a phenomic, agronomic, physiological, and biochemical approach. Front. Plant Sci. 8:935. DOI:
Bulgari R, Franzoni G, Ferrante A, 2019. Biostimulants application in horticultural crops under abiotic stress conditions. Agronomy 9:1-30. DOI:
Campiglia E, Mancinelli R, Cavalieri A, Caporali F, 2007. Use of essential oils of cinnamon, lavender and peppermint for weed control. Ital. J. Agron. 2:171. DOI:
Cavalieri A, Caporali F, 2010. Effects of essential oils of cinnamon, lavender and peppermint on germination of Mediterranean weeds. Allelopath. J. 25:441-52.
Cárdenas CD, Tumbaco M, Pozo-Rivera WE, Morejón M, Rojas M, Gooty JM, Cuaycal A, 2018. Antifungal activity and bio-stimulating effect generated by two botanical extracts in Alpinia purpurata and Heliconia wagneriana cultivation. Org. Agric. 8:325-33. DOI:
Cheema ZA, Khaliq A, 2000. Use of sorghum allelopathic properties to control weeds in irrigated wheat in a semi arid region of Punjab. Agricult. Ecosys. Environ. 79:105-12. DOI:
Cheema ZA, Mushtaq MN. Farooq M, Hussain A, Din IU, 2009. Purple nutsedge management with allelopathic sorghum. Allelop. J. 23:305-12.
Chrysargyris A, Charalambous S, Xylia P, Litskas V, Stavrinides M, Tzortzakis N, 2020. Assessing the biostimulant effects of a novel plant-based formulation on tomato crop. Sustainability 12:8432. DOI:
Colla G, Hoagland L, Ruzzi M, Cardarelli M, Bonini P, Canaguier R, Rouphael Y, 2017. Biostimulant action of protein hydrolysates: Unraveling their effects on plant physiology and microbiome. Front. Plant Sci. 8:1-14. DOI:
Cramer GR, Urano K, Delrot S, Pezzotti M, Shinozaki K, 2011. Effects of abiotic stress on plants: a systems biology perspective. BMC Plant Biol. 11:1-14. DOI:
Cruz-Estrada A, Gamboa-Angulo M, Borges-Argáez R, Ruiz-Sánchez E, 2013. Insecticidal effects of plant extracts on immature whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyroideae). El. J. Biotechnol. 16(1). DOI:
Deba F, Xuan TD, Yasuda M, Tawata S, 2008. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata. Food Control 19:346-52. DOI:
De Almeida LFR, Frei F, Mancini E, De Martino L, De Feo V, 2010. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils. Molecules 15:4309-23. DOI:
De Pascale S, Rouphael Y, Colla G, 2017. Plant biostimulants: Innovative tool for enhancing plant nutrition in organic farming. Eur. J. Hortic. Sci. 82:277-85. DOI:
Desoky ESM, Elrys AS, Mohamed GF, Rady MM, 2018a. Exogenous application of moringa seed extract positively alters fruit yield and its contaminant contents of Capsicum annuum plants grown on a saline soil contaminated with heavy metals. Adv. Plants Agricult. Res. 8:591-601.
Desoky ESM, Merwad ARM, Rady MM, 2018b. Natural biostimulants improve saline soil characteristics and salt stressed-sorghum performance. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 49:967-83. DOI:
Desoky ESM, Elrys AS, Rady MM, 2019a. Licorice root extract boosts Capsicum annuum L. production and reduces fruit contamination on a heavy metals-contaminated saline soil. Int. Lett. Nat. Sci. 73:1-16. DOI:
Desoky ESM, ElSayed AI, Merwad ARMA, Rady MM, 2019b. Stimulating antioxidant defenses, antioxidant gene expression, and salt tolerance in Pisum sativum seedling by pretreatment using licorice root extract (LRE) as an organic biostimulant. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 142:292-302. DOI:
Desoky ESM, EL-Maghraby LMM, Awad AE, Abdo AI, Rady MM, Semida WM, 2020. Fennel and ammi seed extracts modulate antioxidant defence system and alleviate salinity stress in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Sci. Hortic. 272:1-11. DOI:
Digilio MC, Mancini E, Voto E, De Feo V, 2008. Insecticide activity of Mediterranean essential oils. J. Plant Interacti. 3:17-23. DOI:
Di Mola I, Ottaiano L, Cozzolino E, Senatore M, Giordano M, El-nakhel C, Sacco A, Rouphael Y, Colla G, 2019. Plant-Based biostimulants influence the agronomical, physiological, and qualitative responses of baby rocket leaves under diverse nitrogen conditions. Plants 8:1-15. DOI:
Dipak Kumar H, Aloke P, 2020. Role of biostimulant formulations in crop production: An overview. Int. J. Agric. Sci. Vet. Med. 8:38-46.
Di Vittori L, Mazzoni L, Battino, M, Mezzetti B, 2018. Pre-harvest factors influencing the quality of berries. Sci. Hortic. 233:310-22. DOI:
Donno D, Beccaro GL, Mellano MG, Canterino S, Cerutti AK, Bounous G, 2013. Improving the nutritional value of kiwifruit with the application of agroindustry waste extracts. J. Appl. Bot. Food Qual. 86:11-5.
Drobek M, FrÄ…c M, Cybulska J, 2019. Plant biostimulants: Importance of the quality and yield of horticultural crops and the improvement of plant tolerance to abiotic stress-a review. Agronomy 9:1-18. DOI:
du Jardin P, 2015. Plant biostimulants: definition, concept, main categories and regulation. Sci. Hortic. 196:3-14. DOI:
Ebadollahi A, Ziaee M, Palla F, 2020. Essential oils extracted from different species of the Lamiaceae plant family as prospective bioagents against several detrimental pests. Molecules 25:1556. DOI:
El-Azim A, Khater WM, And Badawy RMR, 2017. Effect of bio-fertilization and different licorice extracts on growth and productivity of Foeniculum vulgare, Mill. Plant. Middle East J. Agric. Res. 6:1-12.
EL Boukhari ME, Barakate M, Bouhia Y, Lyamlouli K, 2020. Trends in seaweed extract based biostimulants: manufacturing process and beneficial effect on soil-plant systems. Plants-Basel 9:359. DOI:
El-rokiek KG, Ibrahim ME, El-din SAS, El-sawi SA, 2020. Using anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) essential oils as natural herbicide. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 11:1689-98.
Elzaawely AA, Ahmed ME, Maswada HF, Al-Araby AA, Xuan TD, 2018. Growth traits, physiological parameters and hormonal status of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sprayed with garlic cloves extract. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 64:1068-82. DOI:
Ertani A, Schiavon M, Muscolo A, Nardi S, 2013. Alfalfa plant-derived biostimulant stimulate short-term growth of salt stressed Zea mays L. plants. Plant Soil. 364:145-58. DOI:
Ertani A, Sambo P, Nicoletto C, Santagata S, Schiavon M, Nardi S, 2015. The use of organic biostimulants in hot pepper plants to help low input sustainable agriculture. Chem. Biol. Technol. Agric. 2:1-10. DOI:
Ertani A, Pizzeghello D, Francioso O, Tinti A, Nardi S, 2016. Biological activity of vegetal extracts containing phenols on plant metabolism. Molecules 21:1-14. DOI:
Ertani A, Schiavon M, Nardi S, 2017. Transcriptome-wide identification of differentially expressed genes in Solanum lycopersicon L. in response to an alfalfa-protein hydrolysate using microarrays. Front. Plant Sci. 8:1159. DOI:
EU, 2019. Regulation of the European parliament and of the council laying down rules on the making available on the market of EU fertilising products and amending Regulations (EC) No 1069/2009 and (EC) No 1107/2009 and repealing Regulation (EC) No 2003/2003. Available from:
Farooq M, Rizwan M, Nawaz A, Rehman A, Ahmad R, 2017. Application of natural plant extracts improves the tolerance against combined terminal heat and drought stresses in bread wheat. J. Agro. Crop Sci. 203:528-38. DOI:
Fierascu RC, Fierascu IC, Dinu-Pirvu CE, Fierascu I, Paunescu A, 2020. The application of essential oils as a next-generation of pesticides: Recent developments and future perspectives. Zeitschrift Fur Naturforsch. - Sect. C J. Biosci. 75:183-204. DOI:
Findura P, Hara P, Szparaga A, Kocira S, Czerwińska E, Bartoš P, Nowak J, Treder K, 2020a. Evaluation of the effects of allelopathic aqueous plant extracts, as potential preparations for seed dressing, on the modulation of cauliflower seed germination. Agric. 10:1-9. DOI:
Findura P, Kocira S, Hara P, Pawłowska A, Szparaga A, Kangalov P, 2020b. Extracts from Artemisia vulgaris L. in potato cultivation - preliminary research on biostimulating effect. Agricult. 10:356. DOI:
Fite T, Tefera T, Negeri M, Damte T, 2020. Effect of Azadirachta indica and Milletia ferruginea extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infestation management in chickpea. Cogent Food Agricult. 6:1712145. DOI:
Ganagi TI, Jagadeesh KS, 2018. Effect of spraying Lantana fermented extract on growth and yield of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) in pots. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 7:1187-93. DOI:
Godlewska K, Biesiada A, Michalak I, Pacyga P, 2019. The effect of plant-derived biostimulants on white head cabbage seedlings grown under controlled conditions. Sustainability 11:5317. DOI:
Godlewska K, Biesiada A, Michalak I, Pacyga P, 2020a. The effect of botanical extracts obtained through ultrasound-assisted extraction on white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Var. capitata L.) seedlings grown under controlled conditions. Sustainability 12:1871. DOI:
Godlewska K, Pacyga P, Michalak I, Biesiada A, Szumny A, Pachura N, Piszcz U, 2020b. Field-scale evaluation of botanical extracts effect on the yield, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of celeriac (Apium graveolens L. Var. rapaceum). Molecules 25:4212. DOI:
Green PWC, Belmain SR, Ndakidemi PA, Farrell IW, Stevenson PC, 2017. Insecticidal activity of Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia amygdalina. Ind. Crops Prod. 110:15-21. DOI:
Gurjar MS, Ali S, Akhtar M, Singh KS, 2012. Efficacy of plant extracts in plant disease management. Agric. Sci. 03:425-33. DOI:
Hassanein RA, Abdelkader AF, Faramawy HM, 2019. Moringa leaf extracts as biostimulants-inducing salinity tolerance in the sweet basil plant. Egypt. J. Bot. 59:303-18. DOI:
Hassauer C, Roosen J, 2020. Toward a conceptual framework for food safety criteria: Analyzing evidence practices using the case of plant protection products. Saf. Sci. 127:1-17. DOI:
Hayat S, Ahmad H, Ali M, Hayat K, Khan MA, Cheng Z, 2018. Aqueous garlic extract as a plant biostimulant enhances physiology, improves crop quality and metabolite abundance, and primes the defence responses of receiver plants. Appl. 8:1505. DOI:
Hayat S, Cheng Z, Ahmad H, Ali M, Chen X, Wang M, 2016. Garlic, from remedy to stimulant: Evaluation of antifungal potential reveals diversity in phytoalexin allicin content among garlic cultivars; allicin containing aqueous garlic extracts trigger antioxidants in cucumber. Front. Plant Sci. 7:1235. DOI:
Hussain M, Farooq M, Basra SMA, Lee DJ, 2013. Application of moringa allelopathy in crop production. In: Z. A. Cheema, M. Farooq & A. Wahid (Eds.), Allelopathy: current trends and future applications. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 469-484. DOI:
Ibáñez MD, Blázquez MA, 2017. Herbicidal value of essential oils from oregano-like flavour species. Food Agric. Immunol. 28:1168-80. DOI:
Ibáñez MD, Blázquez MA, 2018. Phytotoxicity of essential oils on selected weeds: Potential hazard on food crops. Plants 7:1-15. DOI:
Isman MB, 1995. Leads and prospects for the development of new botanical insecticides. Rev. Pestic. Toxicol. 3:1-20.
Jafarbeigi F, Samih MA, Zarabi M, Esmaeily S, 2012. The effect of some herbal extracts and pesticides on the biological parameters of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hem.: Aleyrodidae) pertaining to tomato grown under controlled conditions. J. Plant Prot. Res. 52:375-80. DOI:
Jang SJ, Kuk YI, 2019. Growth promotion effects of plant extracts on various leafy vegetable crops. Hort. Sci. Technol. 6:322-36.
Jabran K, Farooq M, 2013. Implications of potential allelopathic crops in agricultural systems. In: Z. A. Cheema, M. Farooq & A. Wahid (Eds.), Allelopathy: Current trends and future applications. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 349-388. DOI:
Jadeja GC, Maheshwari RC, Naik SN, 2011. Extraction of natural insecticide azadirachtin from neem (Azadirahta indica A. Juss) seed kernels using pressurized hot solvent. J. Supercrit. Fluids 56:253-8. DOI:
Jeyapandi R, Shunmugavelu M, 2020. Effect of the plant extract Pongamia pinnata against polyphagous pest Mylabris Indica. Rev. Biotechnol. Biochem. 1:2019-21.
Jouini A, Verdeguer M, Pinton S, Araniti F, Palazzolo E, Badalucco L, Laudicina VA, 2020. Potential effects of essential oils extracted from Mediterranean aromatic plants on target weeds and soil microorganisms. Plants 9:1-24. DOI:
Kaab SB, Rebey IB, Hanafi M, Hammi KM, Smaoui A, Fauconnier ML, De Clerck C, Jijakli MH, Ksouri R, 2020. Screening of Tunisian plant extracts for herbicidal activity and formulation of a bioherbicide based on Cynara cardunculus. South Afr. J. Bot. 128:67-76. DOI:
Karalija E, Dahija S, Parić A, Ćavar Zeljković S, 2020. Phytotoxic potential of selected essential oils against Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, an invasive tree. Sustain. Chem. Pharm. 15:1-8. DOI:
Kashkooli AB, Saharkhiz MJ, 2014. Essential oil compositions and natural herbicide activity of four Denaei Thyme (Thymus daenensis Celak.) Ecotypes. J. Essent. Oil-Bearing Plants 17:859-74. DOI:
Kayange CDM, Njera D, Nyirenda SP, Mwamlima L, 2019. Effectiveness of Tephrosia vogelii and Tephrosia candida extracts against common bean aphid (Aphis fabae) in Malawi. Adv. Agricult. 6704834. DOI:
Khan S, Basra SMA, Afzal I, Wahid A, 2017. Screening of moringa landraces for leaf extract as biostimulant in wheat. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 19:999-1006. DOI:
Khare P, Srivastava S, Nigam N, Singh AK, Singh S, 2019. Impact of essential oils of E. citriodora, O. basilicum and M. arvensis on three different weeds and soil microbial activities. Environ. Technol. Innov. 14:100343. DOI:
Kim S-I, Roh J-Y, Lee H-S, Ahn Y-J, Kim S-I, Kim D-H, 2003. Insecticidal activities of aromatic plant extracts and essential oils against Sitophilus oryzae and Callosobruchus chinensis. J. Stored Prod. Res. 39:293-303. DOI:
Kole RK, Paul P, Saha S, Das S, Mukhopadhyay SK, 2016. Chemistry and bio-efficacy of teak leaf for weed control in wheat. Allelop. J. 39:191-203.
Kopacki M, Pawłat J, Skwaryło-Bednarz B, Jamiołkowska A, Stępniak PM, Kiczorowski P, Golan K, 2021. Physical crop postharvest storage and protection methods. Agronomy 11:1-16. DOI:
Kordali S, Cakir A, Ozer H, Cakmakci R, Kesdek M, Mete E, 2008. Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene. Bioresour. Technol. 99:8788-95. DOI:
Kotzekidou P, Giannakidis P, Boulamatsis A, 2008. Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts and essential oils against foodborne pathogens in vitro and on the fate of inoculated pathogens in chocolate. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 41:119-27. DOI:
Koul O, Walia S, 2009. Comparing impacts of plant extracts and pure allelochemicals and implications for pest control. CAB Rev. Perspect. Agric. Vet. Sci. Nutr. Nat. Resour. 4:3-30. DOI:
Koul P, Walia S, Dhaliwal GS, 2008. Essential oils as green pesticides: potential and constraints. Biopestic. Int. 4:63-84.
Labite H, Butler F, Cummins E, 2011. A review and evaluation of plant protection product ranking tools used in agriculture. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 17:300-27. DOI:
Li S, Zhihui C, 2009. Allium sativum extract as a biopesticide affecting pepper blight. Int. J. Veget. Sci. 15:13-23. DOI:
Lucini L, Rouphael Y, Cardarelli M, Bonini P, Baffi C, Colla G, 2018. A vegetal biopolymer-based biostimulant promoted root growth in melon while triggering brassinosteroids and stress-related compounds. Front. Plant Sci. 9:472. DOI:
Malik A, Mor VS, Tokas J, Punia H, Malik S, Malik K, Sangwan S, Tomar S, Singh P, Singh N, Himangini, Vikram, Nidhi, Singh G, Vikram, Kumar V, Sandhya, Karwasra A, 2020. Biostimulant-treated seedlings under sustainable agriculture: A global perspective facing climate change. Agronomy 11:1-24. DOI:
Matyjaszczyk E, 2018. Plant protection means used in organic farming throughout the European Union. Pest Manag. Sci. 74:505-10. DOI:
Mazrou RM, 2019. Moringa leaf extract application as a natural biostimulant improves the volatile oil content, radical scavenging activity and total phenolics of coriander. J. Med. Plants Stud. 7:45-51.
Mekky MS, Hassanien AMA, Kamel EM, Ismail AEA, 2019. Allelopathic effect of Ocimum basilicum L. extracts on weeds and some crops and its possible use as new crude bio-herbicide. Annals Agricult. Sci. 64:211-21. DOI:
Merwad ARMA, 2018. Using Moringa oleifera extract as biostimulant enhancing the growth, yield and nutrients accumulation of pea plants. J. Plant Nutr. 41:425-31. DOI:
Michalak I, Chojnacka K, 2014. Algal extracts: Technology and advances. Eng. Life Sci. 14:581-91. DOI:
Miguel MG, 2010. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils: a short review. Molecules 15:9252-87. DOI:
Mirmostafaee S, Azizi M, Fujii Y, 2020. Study of allelopathic interaction of essential oils from medicinal and aromatic plants on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce. Agronomy 10:1-23. DOI:
Mittler R, 2006. Abiotic stress, the field environment and stress combination. Trends Plant Sci. 11:15-9. DOI:
Mkenda P, Mwanauta R, Stevenson PC, Ndakidemi P, Mtei K, Belmain SR, 2015. Extracts from field margin weeds provide economically viable and environmentally benign pest control compared to synthetic pesticides. PLoS One 10:e0143530. DOI:
Mohamed MH, Badr EA, Sadak MSh, Khedr HH, 2020. Effect of garlic extract, ascorbic acid and nicotinamide on growth, some biochemical aspects, yield and its components of three faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars under sandy soil conditions. Bull. Nat. Res. Cent. 44:100. DOI:
Mona MA, 2013. The potential of Moringa oleifera extract as a biostimulant in enhancing the growth, biochemical and hormonal contents in rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) plants. Int. J. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 5:42-9. DOI:
Nashwa SMA, Abo-Elyou KAM, 2012. Evaluation of various plant extracts against the early blight disease of tomato plants under greenhouse and field conditions. Plant Prot. Sci. 48:74-9. DOI:
Ni ZJ, Wang X, Shen Y, Thakur K, Han J, Zhang JG, Hu F, Wei ZJ, 2021. Recent updates on the chemistry, bioactivities, mode of action, and industrial applications of plant essential oils. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 110:78-89. DOI:
Nikolova M, Berkov S, 2018. Use оf essential oils аs natural herbicides. Ecol. Balk. 10:259-65.
Noman A, Ali Q, Naseem J, Javed MT, Kanwal H, Islam W, Aqeel M, Khalid N, Zafar S, Tayyeb M, Iqbal N, Buriro M, Maqsood J, Shahid S, 2018. Sugar beet extract acts as a natural bio-stimulant for physio-biochemical attributes in water stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Acta Physiol. Plant. 40:1-17. DOI:
Onunkun O, 2012. Evaluation of aqueous extracts of five plants in the control of flea beetles on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). J. Biopest. 5:62-7.
Oparaeke AM, 2007. Synergistic activity of aqueous extracts mixtures of some Nigerian plants against Maruca vitrata and Clavigralla tomentosicollis on field cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protect. 40:257-63. DOI:
Oruonye ED, Okrikata E, 2010. Sustainable use of plant protection products in Nigeria and challenges. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 2:267-72.
Parađiković N, Teklić T, Zeljković S, Lisjak M, Špoljarević M, 2018. Biostimulants research in some horticultural plant species - A review. Food Energy Secur. 8:1-17. DOI:
Pardo-García AI, Martínez-Gil AM, Cadahía E, Pardo F, Alonso GL, Salinas MR, 2014. Oak extract application to grapevines as a plant biostimulant to increase wine polyphenols. Food Res. Int. 55:150-60. DOI:
Parrado J, Bautista J, Romero EJ, García-Martínez AM, Friaza V, Tejada M, 2008. Production of a carob enzymatic extract: potential use as a biofertilizer. Bioresour. Technol. 99:2312-8. DOI:
Pavela R, 2016. History, presence and perspective of using plant extracts as commercial botanical insecticides and farm products for protection against insects - a review. Plant Protect. Sci. 52:229-41. DOI:
Pavlis M, Cummins E, McDonnell K, 2010. Groundwater vulnerability assessment of plant protection products: a review. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 16:621-50. DOI:
PogÇŽcean MO, Gavrilescu M, 2009. Plant protection products and their sustainable and environmentally friendly use. Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 8:607-27. DOI:
Portz D, Koch E, Slusarenko AJ, 2008. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) juice containing allicin on Phytophthora infestans and downy mildew of cucumber caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 122:197-206. DOI:
Povero G, Mejia JF, Di Tommaso D, Piaggesi A, Warrior P, 2016. A systematic approach to discover and characterize natural plant biostimulants. Front. Plant Sci. 7:1-9. DOI:
Pretorius JC, 2007. Seed suspensions from ‘Lupinus albus’, isolated compounds thereof and use as biological plant strengthening agent. Patent No. WO2007090438 A1, 59. Available from:
Pretorius JC, 2013. Extracts and compounds from ‘Agapanthus africanus’ and their use as biological plant protecting agents. Patent No. WO2007003286 A2. Available from:
Pylak M, Oszust K, FrÄ…c M, 2019. Review report on the role of bioproducts, biopreparations, biostimulants and microbial inoculants in organic production of fruit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 18:597-616. DOI:
Rady MM, Desoky ES, Elrys AS, Boghdady MS, 2019. Can licorice root extract be used as an effective natural biostimulant for salt-stressed common bean plants?. S. Afr. J. Bot. 121:294-305. DOI:
Rashid N, Basra SMA, Shahbaz M, Iqbal S, Hafeez MB, 2018. Foliar applied moringa leaf extract induces terminal heat tolerance in Quinoa. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 20:157-64.
Rashid N, Wahid A, Basra SMA, Arfan M, 2020. Foliar spray of moringa leaf extract, sorgaab, hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid improve leaf physiological and seed quality traits of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) under terminal heat stress. Int. J. Agricult. Biol. 23:811-9.
Raveau R, Fontaine J, Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui A, 2020. Essential oils as potential alternative biocontrol products against plant pathogens and weeds: a review. Foods 9:1-31. DOI:
Rehman HU, Alharby HF, Alzahrani Y, Rady MM, 2018. Magnesium and organic biostimulant integrative application induces physiological and biochemical changes in sunflower plants and its harvested progeny on sandy soil. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 126:97-105. DOI:
Rouphael Y, Colla G, 2018. Synergistic biostimulatory action: Designing the next generation of plant biostimulants for sustainable agriculture. Front. Plant Sci. 871:1-7. DOI:
Rouphael Y, Colla G, 2020. Toward a sustainable agriculture through plant biostimulants: From experimental data to practical applications. Agronomy 10:1-10. DOI:
Roy S, Mukhopadhyay A, Gurusubramanian G, 2010. Field efficacy of a biopesticide prepared from Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. (Verbenaceae) against two major tea pests in the sub Himalayan tea plantation of North Bengal, India. J. Pest Sci. 83:371-7. DOI:
Saijo Y, Loo EP, 2020. Plant immunity in signal integration between biotic and abiotic stress responses. New Phytol. 225:87-104. DOI:
Saroj A, Oriyomi OV, Nayak AK, Haider SZ, 2019. Phytochemicals of plant-derived essential oils: a novel green approach against pests. In: Chukwuebuka Egbuna and Barbara Sawicka. Natural remedies for pest, disease and weed control. Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 65-79. DOI:
Sánchez-Gómez R, Zalacain A, Pardo F, Alonso GL, Salinas MR, 2017. Moscatel vine-shoot extracts as a grapevine biostimulant to enhance wine quality. Food Res. Int. 98:40-9. DOI:
Sequi P, Rea E, Trinchera A, Rivera CM, Salerno A, 2009. Exploring biostimulant effect of a brassicacea plant extract: use of maize seedling development as reference bioassay. pp 737-744 in XI International Symposium on Plant Bioregulators in Fruit Production 884. DOI:
Shah FM, Razaq M, Ali A, Han P, Chen JL, 2017. Comparative role of neem seed extract, moringa leaf extract and imidacloprid in the management of wheat aphids in relation to yield losses in Pakistan. PLoS One 12:e0184639. DOI:
Sharma A, Kumar V, Shahzad B, Ramakrishnan M, Singh Sidhu GP, Bali AS, Handa N, Kapoor D, Yadav P, Khanna K, Bakshi P, Rehman A, Kohli SK, Khan EA, Parihar RD, Yuan H, Thukral AK, Bhardwaj R, Zheng B, 2020. Photosynthetic response of plants under different abiotic stresses: a review. J. Plant Growth Regul. 39:509-31. DOI:
Shreeya A, Batish DR, Singh HP, 2016. Research paper alleopathic effect of aromatic plants: role of volatile essential oils. J. Glob. Biosci. 5:4386-95.
Shuping DSS, Eloff JN, 2017. The use of plants to protect plants and food against fungal pathogens: a review. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 14:120-7. DOI:
Souri MK, Bakhtiarizade M, 2019. Biostimulation effects of rosemary essential oil on growth and nutrient uptake of tomato seedlings. Sci. Hort. 243:472-6. DOI:
Stevenson PC, Isman MB, Belmain SR, 2017. Pesticidal plants in Africa: A global vision of new biological control products from local uses. Ind. Crops Prod. 110:2-9. DOI:
Suciu N, Farolfi C, Zambito Marsala R, Russo E, De Crema M, Peroncini E, Tomei F, Antolini G, Marcaccio M, Marletto V, Colla R, Gallo A, Capri E, 2020. Evaluation of groundwater contamination sources by plant protection products in hilly vineyards of Northern Italy. Sci. Total Environ. 749:1-11. DOI:
Suteu D, Rusu L, Zaharia C, Badeanu M, Daraban GM, 2020. Challenge of utilization vegetal extracts as natural plant protection products. Appl. Sci. 10:1-21. DOI:
Suzuki N, Rivero RM, Shulaev V, Blumwald E, Mittler R, 2014. Abiotic and biotic stress combinations. New Phytol. 203:32-43. DOI:
Synowiec A, Kalemba D, Drozdek E, Bocianowski J, 2017. Phytotoxic potential of essential oils from temperate climate plants against the germination of selected weeds and crops. J. Pest Sci. 90:407-19. DOI:
Taban A, Saharkhiz MJ, Hadian J, 2013. Allelopathic potential of essential oils from four Satureja spp. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 29:244-57. DOI:
Taha RS, Alharby HF, Bamagoos AA, Medani RA, Rady MM, 2020. Elevating tolerance of drought stress in Ocimum basilicum using pollen grains extract; a natural biostimulant by regulation of plant performance and antioxidant defence system. S. Afr. J. Bot. 128:42-53. DOI:
Teklić T, ParaÄ‘iković N, Å poljarević M, Zeljković S, LonÄarić Z, Lisjak M, 2020. Linking abiotic stress, plant metabolites, biostimulants and functional food. Ann. Appl. Biol. 1-23. DOI:
Tembo Y, Mkindi AG, Mkenda PA, Mpumi N, Mwanauta R, Stevenson PC, Ndakidemi PA, Belmain SR, 2018. Pesticidal plant extracts improve yield and reduce insect pests on legume crops without harming beneficial arthropods. Front. Plant Sci. 9:1425. DOI:
Thanaa S, Kassim N, AbouRayya M, Abdalla A, 2017. Influence of foliar application with moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) leaf extract on yield and fruit quality of Hollywood plum cultivar. J. Hortic. 4:1-7.
Thanaa SM, Nabila EK, Abou Rayya MS, Eisa RA, 2016. Response of nonpareil seedlings almond to foliar application of licorice root extract and bread yeast suspend under South Sinai conditions. J. Innov. Pharm. Biol. Sci. 3:123-32.
Trebbi G, Negri L, Bosi S, Dinelli G, Cozzo R, Marotti I, 2021. Evaluation of Equisetum arvense (Horsetail macerate) as a copper substitute for pathogen management in field-grown organic tomato and durum wheat cultivations. Agric. 11:1-14. DOI:
Ugolini L, Cinti S, Righetti L, Stefan A, Matteo R, D’Avino L, Lazzeri L, 2015. Production of an enzymatic protein hydrolyzate from defatted sunflower seed meal for potential application as a plant biostimulant. Ind. Crop. Prod. 75:15-23. DOI:
Van Oosten MJ, Pepe O, De Pascale S, Silletti S, Maggio A, 2017. The role of biostimulants and bioeffectors as alleviators of abiotic stress in crop plants. Chem. Biol. Technol. Agric. 4:1-12. DOI:
Vasilakoglou I, Dhima K, Paschalidis K, Ritzoulis C, 2013. Herbicidal potential on Lolium rigidum of nineteen major essential oil components and their synergy. J. Essent. Oil Res. 25:1-10. DOI:
Vinocur B, Altman A, 2005. Recent advances in engineering plant tolerance to abiotic stress: Achievements and limitations. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16:123-32. DOI:
Wei TT, Cheng ZH, Khan MA, Ma Q, Ling H, 2011. The inhibitive effects of garlic bulb crude extract on Fulvia fulva of tomato. Pak. J. Bot. 43:2575-80.
Yakhin OI, Lubyanov AA, Yakhin IA, Brown PH, 2017. Biostimulants in plant science: a global perspective. Front. Plant Sci. 7:1-32. DOI:
Yasmeen A, Basra SMA, Farooq M, Rehman HU, Hussain N, 2013. Exogenous application of moringa leaf extract modulates the antioxidant enzyme system to improve wheat performance under saline conditions. Plant Growth Regul. 69: 225-33. DOI:
Zanellato M, Masciarelli E, Casorri L, Boccia P, Sturchio E, Pezzella M, Cavalieri A, Fabio C, 2009. The essential oils in agriculture as an alternative strategy to herbicides: a case study. Int. J. Environ. Heal. 3:198-213. DOI:
Zhu JK, 2016. Abiotic stress signaling and responses in plants. Cell 167:313-24. DOI:
Zioga E, Kelly R, White B, Stout JC, 2020. Plant protection product residues in plant pollen and nectar: A review of current knowledge. Environ. Res. 189:1-16. DOI:
Zuleta-Castro C, Rios D, Hoyos R, Rozco-Sanchez F, 2017. First formulation of a botanical active substance extracted from neem cell culture for controlling the armyworm. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 37:40. DOI:
Zulfiqar F, Casadesús A, Brockman H, Munné-Bosch S, 2019. An overview of plant-based natural biostimulants for sustainable horticulture with a particular focus on moringa leaf extracts. Plant Sci. 295:1-48. DOI:

How to Cite

Godlewska , K. ., Ronga, D. ., & Michalak, I. (2021). Plant extracts - importance in sustainable agriculture. Italian Journal of Agronomy, 16(2).