Forage and grain yields of dual-purpose triticale as influenced by the integrated use of Azotobacter chroococcum and mineral nitrogen fertilizer


The utilization of dual-purpose cereals is encouraged in the Mediterranean environments to fill a feed gap during the winter season. Triticale is a promising dual-purpose crop for forage and grain production. Studies on the variations in productivity and quality of dual-purpose triticale under variable fertilization management are scarce. This study was carried out during winter 2018/2019 and 2019/2020, in Northern Egypt, to evaluate the performance of triticale grown in dual-purpose and grain-only production systems under variable mineral N (mN) rates (zero, 25, 50, 75% of the recommended), accompanied with Azotobacter chroococcum (AC) seed inoculation, as well as 100% mN application without AC. The application of 50% mN with AC seed inoculation resulted in an average of 7.23, 7.27 t ha-1, forage and grain yields, respectively. Moreover, forage and grain crude protein reached 125.57, and 200.60 g kg-1, respectively. Forage fiber fractions were non-significantly variable among the fertilizer treatments. Azotobacter chroococcum seed inoculation, thus, allowed for the reduction of the used amount of mN to 50% without sacrificing the forage and grain yields and protein content. In the dual-purpose system, an average of 7.23 t ha-1 forage yield was obtained with little reduction in the grain yield (19% reduction in average). Meanwhile, grain CP content was higher in dual-purpose system (201.38 g kg-1) than in grain-only system (182.98 g kg-1). In similar conditions to the current study, it is recommended to expand the production of dual-purpose triticale in the winter while reducing mN fertilizer rate to 50% in combination with AC seed inoculation.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Aazadi, M. S., Siyadat, S. A., Syahbidi, M. M. P., and Younesi, E. (2014). The Study Effect of Nitrogen, Azotobacter Spp. and Azospirillum Spp. on Phenological and Morphological Traits of Durum Wheat Cultivars in Dehloran Region, Iran. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, 47(1), 15-21.

Alaru, M., Laur, Ü., Eremeev, V., Reintam, E., Selge, A., and Noormets, M. (2009). Winter triticale yield formation and quality affected by N rate, timing and splitting. Agricultural and Food Science, 18, 76-90. DOI:

AOAC (2012). International Official Methods of Analysis (19th Ed.) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Ausubel, F.M., Brent, R., Kingston, R.E., Moore, D.D., Seidman, J.G., Smith, J.A. and K. Struhl (1987) Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Greene Publishing Associates/Wiley Interscience, New York.

Ayalew, H., Kumssa, T. T., Butler, T. J., and Ma, X. F. (2018). Triticale improvement for forage and cover crop uses in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. Frontiers in plant science, 9, 1130. DOI:

Baron, V. S., Juskiw, P. E. and Aljarrah, M. (2015). Triticale as a forage. In Triticale (pp. 189-212). Springer, Cham. DOI:

Bell, L. W., Harrison, M. T., and Kirkegaard, J. A. (2015). Dual-purpose cropping–capitalising on potential grain crop grazing to enhance mixed-farming profitability. Crop and Pasture Science, 66(4), i-iv. DOI:

BenYoussef, S., Kachout, S. S., Abidi, S., Saddem, B., Ismail, J., and B Salem, H. (2019). Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization on Forage Yields and Quality of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa, Roth) Triticale (X Tritcosecale, Witmack) Mixtures. The Open Agriculture Journal, 13(1). DOI:

Bilal, M., Ayub, M., Tariq, M., Tahir, M., and Nadeem, M. A. (2017). Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L.) under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 16(3), 236-241.

Bilgili, U., Cifci, E. A., Hanoglu, H., Yagdi, K., and Acikgoz, E. (2009). Yield and quality of triticale forage. J Food Agric Environ, 7, 556-560.

Blum, A. (2014). The abiotic stress response and adaptation of triticale—A review. Cereal research communications, 42(3), 359-375. DOI:

Bonachela, S., Orgaz, F., and Fereres, E. (1995). Winter cereals grown for grain and for the dual purpose of forage plus grain I. Production. Field Crops Research, 44(1), 1-11. DOI:

Brenner, D. J., Krieg, N. R., and Staley, J. T. (2005). Bergeys manual of systematic bacteriology. volume two: The Proteobacteria. Part B: the Gammaproteobacteria (Second ed. Vol. two): Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.

Briske, D. D., and Richards, J. H. (1994). Physiological responses of individual plants to grazing: current status and ecological significance. Ecological implications of livestock herbivory in the west. Society for Range Management, Denver, Colorado, USA, 147-176.

Cherney, J. H., and Marten, G. C. (1982). Small Grain Crop Forage Potential: II. Interrelationships Among Biological, Chemical, Morphological, and Anatomical Determinants of Quality 1. Crop Science, 22(2), 240-245.

Collee, J.G., and Miles, P.S. (1989) Tests for identification of bacteria. In: Collee, J.G., Duguid, J.P., Fraser, A.G., Marmion, B.P. (eds) Practical medical microbiology. Churchil Livingstone, NY, USA, pp141–160.

Droushiotis, D. N. (1984). The effect of variety and harvesting stage on forage production of barley in a low-rainfall environment. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 102(2), 289-293. DOI:

Ewert, F., and Honermeier, B. (1999). Spikelet initiation of winter triticale and winter wheat in response to nitrogen fertilization. European journal of agronomy, 11(2), 107-113. DOI:

FAOSTAT. (2018). Statistical Yearbook, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Francia, E., Pecchioni, N., Nicosia, O. L. D., Paoletta, G., Taibi, L., Franco, V., ... and Delogu, G. (2006). Dual-purpose barley and oat in a Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Research, 99(2-3), 158-166. DOI:

Giunta, F., Motzo, R., Fois, G., and Bacciu, P. (2015). Developmental ideotype in the context of the dual‐purpose use of triticale, barley and durum wheat. Annals of applied biology, 166(1), 118-128. DOI:

Habiba, H. E., Salama, H. S., and Bondok, A. T. (2018). Effect of the Integrated Use of Mineral-and Bio-Fertilizers on Yield and Some Agronomic Characteristics of Fodder Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Glaucum L.). Alexandria Science Exchange Journal, 39, 282-295. DOI:

Hajighasemi, S., Keshavarz-Afshar, R., and Chaichi, M. R. (2016). Nitrogen fertilizer and seeding rate influence on grain and forage yield of dual-purpose barley. Agronomy Journal, 108(4), 1486-1494. DOI:

Hartley, H. O. (1950). The maximum F-ratio as a short-cut test for heterogeneity of variance. Biometrika, 37(3/4), 308-312. DOI:

Jensen, H. L. (1951). Notes on the biology of Azotobacter. In Proceedings of the Society for Applied Bacteriology (Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 89-94). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jnawali, A. D., Ojha, R. B., and Marahatta, S. (2015). Role of Azotobacter in soil fertility and sustainability–A Review. Advances in Plant and Agriculture Research, 2(6), 1-5.

Kizilkaya, R. (2009). Nitrogen fixation capacity of Azotobacter spp. strains isolated from soils in different ecosystems and relationship between them and the microbiological properties of soils. Journal of Environmental Biology, 30(1), 73-82.

Liu, W., Maurer, H. P., Leiser, W. L., Tucker, M. R., Weissmann, S., Hahn, V., and Würschum, T. (2017). Potential for marker-assisted simultaneous improvement of grain and biomass yield in triticale. Bioenergy Research, 10(2), 449-455. DOI:

Obour, A., Holman, J. D., and Schlegel, A. (2018). Seeding rate and nitrogen application effects on spring oat and triticale forage. Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, 4(5), 5. DOI:

Quatrin, M. P., Olivo, C. J., Simonetti, G. D., Bratz, V. F., Godoy, G. L. D., and Casagrande, L. G. (2019). Response of dual-purpose wheat to nitrogen fertilization and seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 43, 1-10 DOI:

Royo, C., Insa, J.A., Boujenna, A., Ramos, J.M., Montesinos, E., and Garcia del Moral, L. (1994). Yield and quality of spring triticale used for forage and grain as influenced by sowing date and cutting stage. Field Crop Research, 37, 161–168. DOI:

Royo, C., Lopez, A., Serra, J., and Tribo, F. (1997). Effect of sowing date and cutting stage on yield and quality of irrigated barley and triticale used for forage and grain. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 179, 227–234. DOI:

Royo, C. (1999). Plant recovery and grain-yield formation in barley and triticale following forage removal at two cutting stages. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 182, 175–183. DOI:

Sadreddine, B. (2016). Yield and quality of dual-purpose barley and triticale in a semi-arid environment in Tunisia. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11, 2730–2735. DOI:

Salama, H.S.A. (2019). Dual Purpose Barley Production in the Mediterranean Climate: Effect of Seeding Rate and Age at Forage Cutting. International Journal of Plant Production, 13(4), 285-295. DOI:

Salama, H.S.A., and Badry, H.H. (2020). Effect of partial substitution of bulk urea by nanoparticle urea fertilizer on productivity and nutritive value of teosinte varieties. Agronomy Research (In press) DOI: 10.15159/ar.20.189

Statistical Analysis System (2012). SAS PC Windows Version 9.4 SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA.

Patel, K. M., Patel, D. M., Gelot, D. G., and Patel, I. M. (2018). Effect of integrated nutrient management on green forage yield, quality and nutrient uptake of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). International Journal of Chemical studies, 6,173-176

Rajae, K., Fatima, G., Chaouki, A. F., and Mohammed, I. (2017). Forage and grain production of dual purpose triticale grown under Moroccan conditions. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, 7,401-410.

Van Berkum P., and Fuhrmann, J.J. (2000) Evolutionary relationships among the soybean bradyrhizobia reconstructed from 16S rRNA gene and internally transcribed spacer region sequence divergence, Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 2165–2172.

Van Soest, P. V., Robertson, J. B., and Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of dairy science, 74(10), 3583-3597. DOI:

Wani, S.A., Chand, S., Wani, M.A., Ramzan, M., and Hakeem, K.R. (2016). Azotobacter chroococcum – A Potential Biofertilizer in Agriculture: An Overview. In: Hakeem K., Akhtar J., Sabir M. (eds) Soil Science: Agricultural and Environmental Prospectives. Springer, Cham DOI:

Zadoks, J. C., Chang, T. T., and Konzak, C. F. (1974). A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed research, 14(6), 415. DOI:

Special issue on "Innovative fertilizers for sustainable agriculture"
Biofertilizer, forage yield, forage quality, grain yield, mineral nitrogen, Triticosecale Wittmack.
  • Abstract views: 101

  • PDF: 111
How to Cite
Salama, H. S. A., & Badry, H. H. (2020). Forage and grain yields of dual-purpose triticale as influenced by the integrated use of Azotobacter chroococcum and mineral nitrogen fertilizer. Italian Journal of Agronomy, (AOP).